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Module 4 -21 Capacity Development

21.1 Why is capacity development important to municipal managers?
21.2 What is capacity?
21.3 What is capacity development?
21.4 Factors in developing capacity
21.5 Approaching capacity development needs
21.6 Municipal staff capacity
21.7 Instruments for capacity development
Further Guidance

Key Questions:

Why is capacity development important to managers?
What is capacity?
What is capacity development?
How should capacity development be planned for, implemented and managed?

Related Tools:

2 Strategic Planning
3 Planning and Organising
11 Selecting Options
17 Negotiating and Contracting
18 Managing PPPs
20 Managing Conflict

Implementation – Capacity Development

21.4 Factors in developing capacity

People as a vital resource

It is an obvious statement that people are vital to the success of the municipality’s functions. However, how people are helped to develop in order to contribute to that success is often approached in a piecemeal manner, rather than as part of an overall strategy.

People require three factors to be in place if they are to reach their full potential:

  • the enabling environment must be right (in terms of, for instance, institutional and management structures, allocation of responsibilities and supporting resources);
  • motivation must exist (there must be a reason for participating, adequate rewards and desired outcomes); and
  • they must possess appropriate skills, attitudes, knowledge and experience for the task, activity or job.

Developing skills in the absence of an enabling environment or adequate motivation is less likely to lead to the intended result for either the trainer or the learner. These three factors are rarely readily in place and so responsible managers must take account of the situation and strengthen each of the different factors in parallel.

Setting the scene

Setting the scene for capacity development is critical if the time, energy and money invested in it is to be well spent. In practice this involves:

  • looking at the whole picture: how the individual or organisation to be developed fits in to wider objectives (for example, sector-based objectives, municipal mission statements and business plans or a community’s longer-term aspirations). Are capacity development plans integrated across municipal departments?;
  • knowing what has gone on before: what capacity development activities have already taken place and what was the impact?;
  • understanding what is needed: everyone involved knowing why certain skills, knowledge or experience is required, by who, for what use and for how long;
  • thinking ahead: anticipating and putting in place follow-up and support after a capacity development activity has taken place;
  • learning lessons: ensuring that there is a meaningful method for evaluating the impact or outcome of the capacity development activity, and making changes to future initiatives; and
  • not doing capacity development for the sake of it: avoiding delivering training in complete isolation – for example, for an individual’s job description, performance appraisal or training needs analysis, or for a community’s plan or because of sector trends (for example, sector reform, PPP or SWap (Swap = Sector Wide Approach)

Operating context

The operating context (or enabling environment) that people with newly acquired skills and knowledge will work in is equally important. In the context of a municipality it requires managers to understand the following:

  • the existence of poverty reduction initiatives (Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, locally adapted Millennium Development Goals and government programmes) and links with sector-based PPPs;
  • the scale of existing and planned initiatives to deliver services and human resource requirements to support the process;
  • the willingness of stakeholders (for example, NGOs) to cooperate in PPP activities; and
  • regulatory and policy frameworks.



  S T A R T P A G E  
  Module 1 - Before PPPs  
  01-Starting Out  
  02-Strategic Planning  
  Module 2 - Preparation Stage  
  03-Planning & Organising  
  04-Collecting Information  
  Module 3 - PPP Development Stage  
  05-Identifying Constraints  
  06-Defining Objectives  
  07-Defing Parameters (Scope)  
  08-Establishing Principles  
  09-Identifying Partners  
  10-Establishing Partnership  
  11-Selecting Options  
  12-Financing (Investment)  
  13-Financing (Cost Recovery)  
  14-Preparing Business Plans  
  15-Regulating the PPP  
  Module 4 - Implementation  
  16-Tendering & Procurement  
  18-Managing PPPs  
  19-Monitoring & Evaluation  
  20-Managing Conflict  
  21-Capacity Development  
  Contact Information