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Module 4 -21 Capacity Development

21.1 Why is capacity development important to municipal managers?
21.2 What is capacity?
21.3 What is capacity development?
21.4 Factors in developing capacity
21.5 Approaching capacity development needs
21.6 Municipal staff capacity
21.7 Instruments for capacity development
Further Guidance

Key Questions:

Why is capacity development important to managers?
What is capacity?
What is capacity development?
How should capacity development be planned for, implemented and managed?

Related Tools:

2 Strategic Planning
3 Planning and Organising
11 Selecting Options
17 Negotiating and Contracting
18 Managing PPPs
20 Managing Conflict

Implementation – Capacity Development

21.3 What is capacity development?

“Capacity development is the process by which individuals, groups, organisations, institutions and societies increase their abilities to perform core functions, solve problems, define and achieve objectives; and understand and deal with their development needs in a broad context and in a sustainable manner." [UNDP, 1997]

An issue of capacity
“…The shift towards PSP/PPP in so-called public sector functions may be a significant change for private sector actors, but for the municipality it is part of a series of far more structural and procedural changes in the way services are to be delivered. In many countries, municipalities are only beginning to absorb demand-led and participatory approaches, in others they are grappling with the concept of multi-sectoral responses to poverty reduction. Seen in this context a key opportunity and constraint of private sector involvement in service delivery is actually the capacity of municipal government to integrate policies and formulate public-private partnerships that are pro-poor. ……”

In the context of this toolkit, capacity development is targeted typically at the following types of people and organisations:

  • utility employees, including managers;
  • municipal and local government staff and decision-makers;
  • community-based organisations, consumers and customers;
  • NGOs; and
  • private sector operators and providers.

Special training should be conducted for those members of the parliament who develop regulations that could either foster or discourage public-private partnerships.

A variety of terms

The development of human resources is variously described as:

  • training – a planned and systematic effort to develop or modify knowledge and skills through learning;
  • human resource development (HRD) – most often a private sector term that means all activity in an organisation geared toward the development, education and training of employees; and
  • capacity “development”, “strengthening” or “building” – “fuzzy” terms that are increasingly used by governments, donors and NGOs to describe activities (for example, workshops, training and information sharing) rather than an approach to development work. [See definition of capacity development above.]

A variety of delivery modes

The actual delivery of capacity development takes a number of different forms, for example: workshops, training, toolkits, courses, distance learning and participatory processes.

  • The “workshop”: probably the most commonly used method to facilitate capacity development. A planned event often involving residential stays, an agreed agenda or format, participatory activities, logged actions and the publication of a workshop report. Covers a wide range of intention from consultation and advocacy to the development of specific outputs (for example, policy, training material and capacity development guidelines).
  • Training: usually a one-off event on a specific theme or work-related topic, for example, ”gender” or “working with the poor”, although very often technical.
  • Toolkits: self-study publications and sets of material. Either hard copy (in a ring binder or similar) or Internet- or CD-based. Intended to be flexible.
  • Courses: usually a series of sessions away from the workplace run by academic or recognised training institutions. Can be tailor-made and include postgraduate learning (diploma or MSc).
  • Distance learning: an instructional delivery system that connects learners with educational resources. Distance learning provides educational access to learners not enrolled in educational institutions. Learners work through reading material, videos and texts. They submit assignments to a tutor via email or post.
  • Participatory processes: people-centred, non-hierarchical development where ownership is a central aim. Often a series of planned, tool-based activities targeted at users of services or project stakeholders. Can be linked to the project cycle or used in initial assessment and monitoring and evaluation. Well known formats include

    - Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA);
    - Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation
    Transformation (PHAST);
    - Promotion of the Role of Women in Water
    and Environmental Sanitation Services
    (PROWWESS); and
    - Visualisation in Participatory Processes

A variety of outcomes

The various forms of capacity development can also result in a variety of possible outcomes. For example:

  • specific skills, knowledge and attitudes;
  • specific products, for example a document, a guideline or a report;
  • specific action, for example a new approach to project delivery;
  • networking and sharing;
  • cohesive and tangible development and achievement of targets; or
  • nothing – no or little tangible impact.



  S T A R T P A G E  
  Module 1 - Before PPPs  
  01-Starting Out  
  02-Strategic Planning  
  Module 2 - Preparation Stage  
  03-Planning & Organising  
  04-Collecting Information  
  Module 3 - PPP Development Stage  
  05-Identifying Constraints  
  06-Defining Objectives  
  07-Defing Parameters (Scope)  
  08-Establishing Principles  
  09-Identifying Partners  
  10-Establishing Partnership  
  11-Selecting Options  
  12-Financing (Investment)  
  13-Financing (Cost Recovery)  
  14-Preparing Business Plans  
  15-Regulating the PPP  
  Module 4 - Implementation  
  16-Tendering & Procurement  
  18-Managing PPPs  
  19-Monitoring & Evaluation  
  20-Managing Conflict  
  21-Capacity Development  
  Contact Information