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Module 4 -20 Managing Conflict

20.1 What are conflicts?
20.2 Conflict preparedness
20.3 Conflict prevention
20.4 Mechanisms of conflict resolution
20.5 Conflict resolution techniques and skills
Further Guidance

Key Questions:

Related Tools:

3 Planning and Organising
8 Establishing Principles
10 Establishing Partnership Processes

Implementation – Managing Conflict

20.3 Conflict prevention

It goes without saying that concern for conflict prevention should have priority over concern for conflict resolution. In conflict prevention, integrated and decentralised planning models with effective stakeholder participation and, if needed, transparent appeal procedures can be very instrumental. One precondition is, of course, that stakeholders should be equipped with accessible information systems and relevant capacities.

Avoiding the transition of dispute into conflict is a key aspect of both institutional development and mobilising political commitment. Should disputes arise, contractual arrangements generally recognise explicitly that the parties will seek in “good faith and a spirit of co-operation” to find an equitable solution.

Sector programme activities should be designed such that they seek (directly or indirectly) to have peaceful and agreeable resolutions. Activities should include, for instance:

  • stakeholder consultation to ensure inclusive rather than exclusive planning;
  • mechanisms to strengthen partnerships;
  • defined and agreed upon roles and responsibilities; and
  • demand-responsive programmes, where the users have both a voice and choice in decision-making processes, such as pricing, tariff settings and technical and management options for sustainable services.

The above will reduce the chances of potential conflicts. Conflict prevention should therefore strive for good governance, community-based mediation/participation, human rights promotion and so on.


Role of participation in conflict prevention

Prior to the last decade, the business practices of the service sector rarely involved consumers in decision-making or management. More recently, with concern that agencies are still failing to reach more than a billion of the poorest in developing countries, moving people centre stage in service projects has become an important theme.

Participation plays a central role in conflict prevention. Involving users in the design and management of PPP arrangements on services provision provides a means of revealing demand and ensuring that services match what people want, are willing to pay for and will strive to maintain.
The rationale for user participation is summarised as follows:

  • User participation makes services and service providers more responsive and accountable to beneficiaries.
  • Cost recovery and the sustainability of services improve when technology choices and services correspond with what users want and are willing to pay for.
  • Management of services is more effective when institutional arrangements are tailored to local practices.

Demand-based approaches can also help resolve conflicts over resource allocation among competing sectoral uses. Increased participation by primary stakeholders helps ensure that choices are anchored in demand and not unduly influenced by contractors, consultants and other secondary stakeholders.



  S T A R T P A G E  
  Module 1 - Before PPPs  
  01-Starting Out  
  02-Strategic Planning  
  Module 2 - Preparation Stage  
  03-Planning & Organising  
  04-Collecting Information  
  Module 3 - PPP Development Stage  
  05-Identifying Constraints  
  06-Defining Objectives  
  07-Defing Parameters (Scope)  
  08-Establishing Principles  
  09-Identifying Partners  
  10-Establishing Partnership  
  11-Selecting Options  
  12-Financing (Investment)  
  13-Financing (Cost Recovery)  
  14-Preparing Business Plans  
  15-Regulating the PPP  
  Module 4 - Implementation  
  16-Tendering & Procurement  
  18-Managing PPPs  
  19-Monitoring & Evaluation  
  20-Managing Conflict  
  21-Capacity Development  
  Contact Information