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Module 3 - 05
Identifying Constraints

5.1 Why analyse constraints?
5.2 What are the possible constraints on the PPP?
5.3 Specific constraints that affect the poor
5.4 How to overcome existing constraints?
Further Guidance

Key Questions:

What are the constraints for the PPP?
What are the specific constraints faced in reaching the poor?

Related Tools:

01 Starting Out
09 Selecting Options
15 Regulating the PPP
18 Managing PPPs

PPP Development Stage – Identifying Constraints

5.4 How to overcome existing constraints?

While the roles and responsibilities of the private and public sector partners may differ depending on the type of project, the overall responsibility of government does not change in a PPP. A PPP is one of a number of ways to deliver public infrastructure and infrastructure services. It is not a substitute for effective governance and decision-making by government, which even in a PPP remains accountable for delivering services to the public.

Nor does private involvement relieve the government of its responsibility for ensuring that service providers take environmental and social considerations into account. To fulfil their obligations in this area, governments need to understand and respond to the needs of users and affected populations.

User demand…

…and public preferences, rather than the technical supply of urban services, must drive service supply planning. Differentiated or decentralised services may meet users’ needs more effectively than traditional, centralised systems.

Education programmes…

…may have to be undertaken to help users understand the constraints on the system, the options for addressing those constraints and the costs of different approaches to service delivery.

The development of clear rules…

…for the partnership (that is, self-regulation of the partnership) can improve partnership effectiveness in general, and partnership regulation in particular. If they are to maximise their potential, internal partnership agreements should define clearly:

  • the activities of the partnership and its key objectives (which might be formulated as coverage and service delivery targets);
  • the roles and responsibilities of each partner, decision procedures and internal reporting; and
  • arbitration mechanisms.

Such clarity would help the partnership in building its credibility vis-à-vis the regulatory institutions and would increase its effectiveness.

Partnership dialogue…

…gives politicians and other public officials (as well as NGOs and other civil society actors) a better sense of what the PPP involves and the constraints that both the public and private sectors face. This may help temper both public pronouncements and community expectations. Where social acceptance of PPPs can be generated, the arrangement is more likely to achieve efficiency gains that should benefit all stakeholders.


  S T A R T P A G E  
  Module 1 - Before PPPs  
  01-Starting Out  
  02-Strategic Planning  
  Module 2 - Preparation Stage  
  03-Planning & Organising  
  04-Collecting Information  
  Module 3 - PPP Development Stage  
  05-Identifying Constraints  
  06-Defining Objectives  
  07-Defing Parameters (Scope)  
  08-Establishing Principles  
  09-Identifying Partners  
  10-Establishing Partnership  
  11-Selecting Options  
  12-Financing (Investment)  
  13-Financing (Cost Recovery)  
  14-Preparing Business Plans  
  15-Regulating the PPP  
  Module 4 - Implementation  
  16-Tendering & Procurement  
  17-Negotiating & Contracting  
  18-Managing PPPs  
  19-Monitoring & Evaluation  
  20-Managing Conflict  
  21-Capacity Development  
  Contact Information