English    Español    Français

Module 3 - 05
Identifying Constraints

5.1 Why analyse constraints?
5.2 What are the possible constraints on the PPP?
5.3 Specific constraints that affect the poor
5.4 How to overcome existing constraints?
Further Guidance

Key Questions:

What are the constraints for the PPP?
What are the specific constraints faced in reaching the poor?

Related Tools:

01 Starting Out
09 Selecting Options
15 Regulating the PPP
18 Managing PPPs

PPP Development Stage – Identifying Constraints

5.3 Specific constraints that affect the poor

Local governments have to be more honest about the constraints they face in reaching the poor to the degree that is required. Below a few of the most obvious and challenging barriers are highlighted.

Political will

Perhaps the primary constraint to the development of a partnership that addresses the needs of the poorer groups effectively is lack of political will. Often the situation involving the poor is complex and the proportion of the population that this disadvantaged group comprises could be too low to provide sufficient political motivation – either to take the poor into consideration in the first place, or to redesign the contract later on.

Political and institutional constraints

Often political and institutional limitations exist on the development of more pro-poor attitudes within urban governments. These constraints include: the complex political struggles that often take place between national and local government; overlapping responsibilities between different authorities or agencies; and unrealistic expectations about what local authorities can actually do with their very limited technical and institutional capacity.

Economic policies

The poor are never a homogeneous group: they differ markedly by such factors as gender, age, ethnicity, race or location. Occupational barriers, social barriers and gender-barriers, which frequently overlap, can serve to prevent access to the service either at the community or household level.
Thus, to be effective against poverty, economic policies need to help break down the barriers of exclusion and discrimination that prevent various social groups from taking part in economic opportunities. Equity-sensitive economic policies can contribute a great deal to achieving this objective. In many cases, measures that are directly redistributive will also have to play a complementary role. The objective is an equitable distribution of economic opportunities, which then ensures everyone has the material means to sustain a universally acceptable level of basic human development.

Connection fees

Some of the solutions to address the barriers that the poor face in connecting to established utilities include:

  • reducing the price that the poor must pay to have a connection installed;
  • creating more favourable payment terms for the connection charge;
  • in the case of water, facilitating more convenient access to water at favourable payment terms through the installation of water kiosks;
  • using pre-paid water or electricity meters or debit card type arrangements for water from standpoints;
  • offering the poor a “menu” of service options, beginning with a low-cost ground tank, for example, but also including higher-cost alternatives such as a household connection.

Time frame

The “time factor” may be a significant reason for the historic under-representation of services to low-income communities in many contract documents. However, time pressure should not become an obstacle to better services for disadvantaged groups.



  S T A R T P A G E  
  Module 1 - Before PPPs  
  01-Starting Out  
  02-Strategic Planning  
  Module 2 - Preparation Stage  
  03-Planning & Organising  
  04-Collecting Information  
  Module 3 - PPP Development Stage  
  05-Identifying Constraints  
  06-Defining Objectives  
  07-Defing Parameters (Scope)  
  08-Establishing Principles  
  09-Identifying Partners  
  10-Establishing Partnership  
  11-Selecting Options  
  12-Financing (Investment)  
  13-Financing (Cost Recovery)  
  14-Preparing Business Plans  
  15-Regulating the PPP  
  Module 4 - Implementation  
  16-Tendering & Procurement  
  17-Negotiating & Contracting  
  18-Managing PPPs  
  19-Monitoring & Evaluation  
  20-Managing Conflict  
  21-Capacity Development  
  Contact Information