Preparation Stage – Planning & Organising
3.2 What are the key steps?
A. Plan and agree the process of stakeholder consultation
It is necessary for the municipality to first identify who
the key stakeholders are from the list of potential actors
in the partnership arrangement [Tool 2]. It will also need to
provide answers to the following questions:
- Which stakeholders
will be consulted?
- When will they be consulted?
- How will they be consulted?
- How will these views be compiled?
- How will final decisions be made?
The methods that can be used for the identification of stakeholders
and collection of the above information include those listed
1. Stakeholder analysis
– a method used to acquire an understanding of the power relationships,
influence and interests of stakeholders involved in the development
of a PPP project [Tool 9]
2. Key informant interviewing
– a method of data collection involving an interviewer
asking questions of another person (a respondent). Interviews
are good for getting subjective reactions, opinions and insights
into how people feel about an issue. Interviews could be structured
- Structured interviews take place once with
a pre-defined set of questions and responses. A structured
approach can provide more reliable, quantifiable data
than an open-ended interview, and can be designed rigorously
to avoid biases in the line of questioning.
- Open-ended interviews permit
the respondent (interviewee) to provide additional information,
ask broad questions without a fixed set of answers and explore
paths of questioning which may occur to the interviewer spontaneously
during the interview. An open-ended approach allows for
an exploratory approach to uncover unexpected information;
it is used especially when the exact issues of interest
have yet to be identified.
Structured and open-ended approaches may be combined.
For instance, an interviewer can begin with structured
questions then, once the quantifiable data has been covered,
open up the discussion with the interviewee into other
– a planned event often involving residential stays, an
agreed agenda or format, participatory activities, logged actions
and the publication of a workshop report. It covers a wide range
of intention from consultation and advocacy to the development
of specific outputs, including stakeholder identification.
B. Select a management team and task force
Government agencies have primary responsibility and are accountable
for the delivery of public-private partnership projects within
their portfolio. Agencies should establish a task force (committee)
to oversee the development and implementation of projects; and
a management team responsible for day-to-day project management.
The task force…
…is the central coordinating body for the ongoing development
of the public-private partnership policy and guidance material and
its application to projects within other agencies. The objectives
of the task force include, but are not limited to, the following.
- advise and monitor the PPP project;
- raise awareness and maintain momentum toward the PPP arrangement;
- coordinate the implementation of commercialisation by individual
authorities at the policy level;
- design performance improvement indicators for specific activities.
The members of the task force will be
drawn from a range of interested stakeholders, and may be from
the public, private and/or the civil society sectors. Working
groups could be established to report on progress in particular
A task force should not be too large and its
membership should not include individuals who have too many
The PPP management team…
…is established by the government agency to manage the partnership
over the life of the service delivery. Senior municipal managers
should identify the specific members of a “core” team
that will work towards the setting up of the PPP.
A “project champion” should become part of the management
team. As described in [Tool 1], a champion (or leader, pioneer)
can be a government official, an NGO representative, a business
person or a citizen who – through his/her personal motivation
make partnerships happen. The champion’s role in the management
team could vary depending on his/her knowledge and skills;
however, usually he/she remains as a project driver throughout
the PPP process.
The team should be multi-sectoral, combining the skill sets
- community and poverty specialists;
- technical professionals (such as engineers);
- financial experts (perhaps from the treasury); and
- legal experts (perhaps the chamber secretary).
While the need for each skill will vary throughout the
overall process, it is essential that the various
disciplines all be represented. In addition, the work of the
core team should be accompanied by capacity development relevant
to its responsibilities. The skills of each member of the team
should be noted down and compared with the skills that are
actually required. The capacity development can then be targeted
to ensure that the management team’s
skills pool covers all the necessary requirements.
Team members should be allocated specific
responsibilities and must be advised clearly
on their lines of accountability – for
example, are they accountable to their heads
of department or to their team leader?
The management team works closely with all partners to ensure
smooth and efficient delivery of project outcomes. Its day-to-day
activities include, but are not limited to, performance monitoring,
contract renegotiation, problem solving and conflict resolution.
Who is involved?
◊ A management team
◊ A PPP taskforce
C. Plan and agree a process
The first task of the management team and task force is to
prepare an outline of the process. This should address the
issues listed below:
- What will be done?
– They need to establish a programme
of steps that need to be taken to set up the PPP.
- When will it be done?
– They must establish a schedule.
- Who will undertake this
process and the specific steps?
– Tasks need to be allocated.
- What are the milestones for
This process must then be agreed with the municipality
(or other relevant government structure).
D. Select and appoint transaction advisors
It is unlikely that all the skills needed for the development
of the PPP will exist within the municipality. An important
part of the planning stage is to determine what technical (and
financial) support is required. To do so, the municipality should:
the additional skills that need to be brought in from advisors
outside the municipality;
- estimate the cost of these advisors;
- identify the funding for these advisors;
- select the advisor(s); and
- programme their inputs in relation to the overall process.
It is important that this process is initiated as soon
as possible to ensure that hold-ups in this area do
not discourage the process.